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Originally published Sunday, August 7, 2011 at 11:30 AM

Castles and high-tech culture in Slovenia

Evening was fast approaching in the Slovenian town of Piran when the chimes of the Chiesa di San Giorgio reminded me that the piano concerto...

New York Times

If You Go

Slovenia

Getting around

Slovenia has an efficient bus system (veolia-transport.si) and rail network (slo-zeleznice.si/en) with multiple daily departures between Ljubljana and Piran, Maribor and Postojna. Most journeys cost less than 20 euros, or $28.20 at $1.41 to the euro.

Ljubljana

The eight-room Hotel Center (Slovenska Cesta 51; 386-1-520-0640; hotelcenter.si) is a clean and simple budget option near the train and bus stations. Doubles from 50 euros.

A 2010 arrival, the Antiq Palace Hotel & Spa (Gosposka 10; 386-8-389-6700; antiqpalace.com) is housed in a 16th-century mansion with 13 suites, a patio bar and a spa. Doubles from 180 euros.

One of the best new restaurants is Golstilna na Gradu (Grajska Planota 1; 386-8-205-1930; nagradu.si) in Ljubljana Castle; it serves neo-Slovenian food and local wine.

The city is awash in cultural festivals. Highlights include the Ljubljana Festival (to Sept. 4; ljubljanafestival.si), the Biennal of Graphic Arts (Sept. 23 to Nov. 20; mglc-lj.si/eng/index-bienale.htm) and the Month of Design (Oct. 13 to Nov. 13; monthofdesign.com).

Two excellent representatives of Ljubljana's impressive art and design scene are Galerija Equrna (Gregorciceva 3a; 386-1-252-7123; equrna.si), a pioneering private gallery of avant-garde art dating back to the former Yugoslavia, and Tanja Pak Design (Precna 6; 386-1-431-5246; tanjapak.com), where Pak, the artist-designer, showcases her award-winning glass creations.

Piran

Friendly and quaint, the 12-room Miracolo di Mare (Tomsiceva 23; 386-5-921-7660; miracolodimare.si) bed-and-breakfast is in the old part of Piran, near the bus depot. Forgettable touristy restaurants line the town's seaside walks, but Pizzeria Riva (Presernovo Nabrezje 6, 386-5-673-2225) is one of the better ones, serving everything from pizzas to fresh seafood.

The mansion where the composer Giuseppe Tartini was born, known as Tartini House (Kajuhova 12; 386-5-671-0040), hosts concerts and contains a small museum dedicated to the violin virtuoso.

Maribor

A Capital of European Culture next year (maribor2012.info), Slovenia's second-largest city is a winter haven for skiers, a summer getaway for hikers and an all-year stop for fans of Slovenian wine.

The marquee attraction is the world's oldest vine. The plant, along with a small museum and wine bar, can be found at the Old Vine House (Vojasniska 8; 386-2-251-5100; maribor-slovenia-travel-guide.com/old-vine-maribor.html).

Other key spots for oenophiles include Vinag (Trg Svobode 3; 386-2-220-8111; www.vinag.si), a wine boutique with a massive cellar that visitors can tour, and Rozmarin restaurant (Gosposka Ulica 8, 386-2-234-3180; www.rozmarin.si), which serves Slovenian and international food — lamb carpaccio with dandelion pesto, red mullet baked in a paper bag — and scores of Slovenian wines.

For accommodations, the Hotel Orel (Volkmerjev prehod 7; 386-2-250-6700; www.termemb.si/en/hotels/hotel-orel) has 71 good-size rooms in the picturesque old center of Maribor. Doubles from 120 euros.

Postojna

About a half-mile from the town center, the 12 miles of Postojna Cave (386-5-700-0100; postojnska-jama.si) are well worth the 22-euro ticket price. Multiple daily tours all year round.

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Evening was fast approaching in the Slovenian town of Piran when the chimes of the Chiesa di San Giorgio reminded me that the piano concerto was about to begin. As the sun slanted across the Adriatic, I hurried toward the vast Tartini Square — named for Giuseppe Tartini, the Baroque-era Italian violinist and composer — past outdoor cafes, where boisterous groups of Slovenians were devouring Balkan sausages and toasting one another — "Na zdravje!" ("To your health!") — with local Lasko beer.

At the neo-Classical Casa Tartini — the birthplace of the composer — a stout woman with fuchsia hair welcomed me with a hardy "Buona sera!" I found my seat among some couples swapping town gossip in the language of Dante, then opened the program and scanned the family names of the night's pianists: Mihailic, Pocecco, Levanic, Prodi.

Slovenian, Italian, Slovenian, Italian.

The bicultural mash-up was starting to make my head spin. In what strange land had I arrived?

The Italo-Slavic hybrid on the coast of Slovenia is just one of many surprises in this tiny nation of around 2 million people. In June, I traveled the length of the country by bus and train — through cities, along shorelines, up mountains — and found more surprises: fairy-tale castles, top-notch designers, wines made by monks, wild wedding parties, giant escargot performing Shakespeare (more on this later), a fruit-bearing plant that appears in the Guinness World Records (ditto), and human fish (best left for the end). And then there is the folkloric city of Maribor, built by the Austrian Hapsburgs and named as a Capital of European Culture for 2012.

Perhaps the biggest surprise is simply the existence of Slovenia, which is celebrating its 20th anniversary as an independent nation this year. Since the Middle Ages, the land of the Slovene people has been repeatedly absorbed by empires and dictatorships — the mercantile Venetians (hence the Italian influence), the Austrian (and later Austro-Hungarian) Empire and finally Yugoslavia, from which the Slovenes separated themselves in 1991 after a 10-day war with the Yugoslav army.

The intervening years have seen a full charge toward European integration. Slovenia was admitted to the European Union in 2004 and adopted the euro in 2007. Its international airport, just outside the capital city of Ljubljana, is in the midst of a 10-year expansion that will further reveal this often overlooked Slavic country to the world.

Exhibit A is certainly Ljubljana, a city that brims with faded Hapsburg glory. After throwing my bag in the wood-lined interior of my room at the cheap but cheerful Hotel Center, I was soon lost in cobbled lanes lined with medieval town houses, Baroque churches and stately 19th-century edifices — and plenty of concrete eyesores left over from decades of Yugoslav socialism.

Though only 280,000 Slovenes inhabit their capital — including some 50,000 students — the city felt full of energy. Posters trumpeted new spaces like Kino Siska, a former cinema transformed into a performance hall. Along Metalkova Street, a construction site bristled with the almost-finished structure of the city's most anticipated new venue, the Museum of Contemporary Art, which will open on Oct. 29. Everywhere, well-dressed Slovenes streamed past on bicycles. Compared with the former Yugoslav capital of Belgrade, Serbia — a lively city beset by grime, gray architecture and dilapidated infrastructure — Ljubljana seemed a kind of Slavic Copenhagen, a portrait of efficiency and prosperity.

"In history we belong more to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and to the West, so we have always been kind of apart, this tiny little bubble that didn't really fit completely" in Yugoslavia, said Tanja Pak, a 30-something glass designer, as we drank water mixed with elderflower juice in her Ljubljana boutique.

Compared with their cousins in Bosnia, Serbia and the other former components of Yugoslavia, "We always thought that we were more organized," she went on in excellent English, which nearly everyone under 40 seems to speak. Many Slovenes don't even think of their country as part of the Balkans, she told me. Like Westerners, she said, "I think we're obsessed with work."

That obsession has paid off nicely in her case. On a nearby pedestal, the afternoon sun filtered orange through some exquisite glassworks that have garnered Pak two honorable mentions from the prestigious Germany-based Red Dot Awards: V-shaped shot glasses with delicately etched bases, and an ultrathin water carafe that tapers upward in curvy undulations. Next to them stood some spherical drinking glasses resembling drops of rain. Pak is hardly the only Slovene racking up international honors these days. Everything from Kolpa bathroom fixtures to Petric skis has nabbed a Red Dot, helping to elevate Slovenia into a design destination. Its profile has been further boosted by homegrown galas like the annual Month of Design (October to November) and Biennial of Graphic Arts (September to November this year).

Castle dining

That night, a funicular climbed the forested hill in the city center and deposited me at Ljubljana Castle for a meal in its new courtyard restaurant, Gostilna na Gradu. The year-old establishment prides itself on using organic products and elevating old world Slovenian recipes rather than dishing out the same predictable mix of Italian, Austrian and Serbian fare, as most local restaurants do. Soon the waiters were rushing over the paving stones to deliver me an amuse-bouche made from nuggets of smoky pork fat, followed by finely sliced beef tongue and robust potato ravioli ringed with a zesty lamb ragout. These were barnyard dishes, displayed with the Slovenian eye for design.

Down in the twinkling city, music began to rise from the Baroque plazas along the Ljubljanica River. I followed the strains of an avant-Muzak-like take on "Summertime" to Presernov Square, where hundreds of spectators were watching two humanoid snails perform Kama Sutra positions on an open-air stage. Absorbing the scene in the moonlight, I wondered: Would Shakespeare even recognize his own hand buried underneath this unorthodox interpretation of "A Midsummer Night's Dream"? It looked more like a midsummer night's acid trip.

The soundtrack changed to jazz in a narrow lane called Stari Trg, home to the SKUC cultural center. A combo grooved through some bebop and then made way for a Slovenian woman who read aloud in her native language from a short story. Sitting alongside me in seats seemingly torn from 1970s jalopies, a dozen guys and girls in thrift-store duds nodded appreciatively at the neo-Beat Generation scene.

To the sea

In the morning, a bus carried me through a landscape of pine forests and distant jagged hills. After two hours, one of Slovenia's best-kept secrets opened up on the horizon: the boundless blue of the Adriatic.

Only about 30 miles long, Slovenia's coast is scarcely a crumb between the seaside expanses of Italy above and Croatia below. And that's precisely its allure. While foreign tourists flood Trieste and Dubrovnik, only cognoscenti frequent Slovenia's rustic seaside villages. I debarked in Piran, set on a slender finger of land pointing into the sea. During the centuries that the Austrians were occupying the rest of Slovenia, the wily Venetians were running a lucrative salt trade here, using the profits to build one of the loveliest settlements on the Adriatic. Houses with orange tile roofs pack the web of tiny lanes. Town houses radiate sherbet colors — peach, lime, strawberry. Only the down-at-the heels marina, with its rusted railings and creaky dinghies, blighted the postcard image.

Later, as I lost myself in the shady alleyways, some animated bodies appeared. "Questa chiesa ... " a guide was saying to an Italian tour group as they trooped past the yellow facade of the 15th-century Our Lady of Consolation church. They were reveling in the details of Piran's many medieval houses of worship: the arcaded cloister of the Church of St. Francis of Assisi, the rectangular clock tower of the Church of St. George, which is a scale replica of the Campanile of San Marco in Venice.

In Tartini Square, I noticed a familiar woman: Marilyn Monroe. Her painted face smiled from the windows of the neo-Classical-style Palazzo Trevisini. Inside I found "Splendid Pop," an exhibition of Pop Art lithographs set to last through this month. The Velvet Underground echoed through galleries hung with Tom Wesselmann's topless women. Roy Lichtenstein's pointillist comic-strip cows and Andy Warhol's Marilyns filled other rooms. The Factory, improbably, had landed in this languorous Slovenian town.

Suddenly, a clamor of drums and trumpets erupted outside, and a wildly shouting wedding party flooded out of the municipal court house next door. The dolled-up guests, holding flutes of Slovenian sparkling wine, began to dance the kolo. A man with a megaphone shouted encouragement, as spectators clapped and whistled. A young Slovenian woman translated the lyrics for me as something like "It's a day when everyone is in love / But I am alone and have no one."

In midafternoon another wedding party streamed out of city hall, hoisted a different bride and groom, and danced again to a brass band. Then, improbably, a third did the same.

Cultural capital

The weather turned rainy on the long bus and train journey to Maribor, a quaint stone-and-wood city near the Austrian border. Pastel town houses disappeared, replaced by stolid Hapsburg buildings. Behind them loomed the green Pohorje Mountains, grooved with ski runs awaiting winter snows. Beyond those, hills and fields bloomed with grapes.

Posters and banners around the cobbled streets trumpeted the city's star turn as a European Capital of Culture next year, but I was seeking a different sort of culture: viticulture.

"For most of the last 20 years, our winemakers were sleeping a little bit," said Sasa Arsenovic, owner of the Rozmarin restaurant, as we drank Slovenian merlot and talked about the long history of local winemaking. "But in the last five years they have begun to wake up."

The proof was all around the sleek establishment, which Arsenovic, a former professional tennis player, opened in 2006. A tasting menu with paired Slovenian wines beckoned from the card, while a wall of bottles for sale peeked out from the next room.

As the region's winemakers have emerged from slumber, Maribor's cobbled streets have begun to fill with wine restaurants and tasting rooms, sometimes in unlikely places. Traipse into Vodni Stolp, a 16th-century water tower near Maribor's medieval synagogue, and you find the Vinoteka Maribor wine bar. In Svobode Square I found the two-year-old Vinag wine boutique and joined a few other visitors for a guided tour of its mold-covered stone cellar, filled with some 150 huge wooden barrels. Afterward, we indulged in glasses of crisp Mariborcan (a blend of local white grapes) and a lackluster chardonnay (proving that some winemakers are still in somnambulist mode).

But the most famous personality in the Maribor wine world — one recognized by Guinness World Records — stood spread out in front of a white house on Vojasniska street: the world's oldest vine.

Planted more than 400 years ago with red zametovka grapes, the vine survived the invasions of the Ottoman Turks, endured Napoleon's armies when they seized Slovenia for a few years, withstood a 19th-century phylloxera epidemic that ravaged vineyards across Europe, emerged from two World Wars, suffered obscurity in the postwar decades, and finally found glory in 2007 with the creation of the Old Vine House, which is both a museum and wine shop.

"Last year it produced 59 kilos of grapes," Vesna Horvat, the young director, told me. The coming harvest, she assured, would be the occasion of a citywide bacchanal.

Could we sample its wine, I asked? She shook her head.

"We put the wine in very small bottles of 2.5 deciliters and use them as a protocol gift, " she said. "They are only for visiting officials. Bill Clinton has a bottle. So does Arnold Schwarzenegger, the pope and the emperor of Japan."

Devastated, I decided to drown my sorrows at the museum's bar. Soon a young guide named Jernej Lubet was pouring a rose from the Gaube label and some honey-sweet welschriesling from Vinag. The star was a smooth, dry white wine made from a local grape called sipon. Lubet explained that the winemaker, Dveri-Pax, is operated by an order of Benedictine monks that has been around since the 12th century. The grape, he said, earned its curious name when Napoleon's soldiers occupied the area in the early 1800s.

"They tasted the wine and said 'Si bon! Si bon!' But the restaurateurs didn't speak French. They just heard "Sipon! Sipon!"

Into the caves

Slovenia's final surprise was niched in the rugged karst region, beneath the village of Postojna. Next to a tunnel bored into a hillside, I joined some other tourists and boarded a narrow-gauge train that shot off into the Postojna Cave. Forests of stalactites, sharp and menacing, hung above. Stalagmites, some as high as flagpoles, jutted from the cave floor. The train stopped and our guide, Katja, explained that the 13 miles of caves and wild stone shapes were formed by erosion and dripping water from the Pivka River.

Our group continued on foot, snaking downward into the whorls of nature's intestines, through claustrophobic channels and cathedral-like chambers. The strange shapes became ever more surreal: piles of gargantuan jellyfish; seas of brain coral; oversize mushroom clusters.

Soon, a glass and metal case, the size of a truck, materialized. Inside, pale salamander-like creatures clung to rocks. These were the Proteus anguinus, residents of the deep caves, transferred to this artificial habitat.

"We call them 'human fish' for two reasons," Katja said. "One is that they can live up to 100 years, like us. And also because they have white skin, like ours."

Our group boarded the train and shot back through the darkness, contemplating what we had witnessed: little known, ruggedly beautiful and populated with unexpected characters. For a moment, this curious underground world seemed the perfect metaphor for Slovenia itself.

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