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Sunday, June 27, 2004 - Page updated at 12:00 A.M.
Astronomer Thomas Gold, renowned for originality, dies at 84
By Eric D. Tytell
Mr. Gold, professor emeritus of astronomy at Cornell University, died Tuesday at Cayuga Medical Center in Ithaca, N.Y., after a long battle with heart disease.
Dedicated to pursuing his ideas wherever they took him, Mr. Gold ranged across fields as diverse as cosmology and astrophysics, lunar and terrestrial geology, and physiology and microbiology. Mr. Gold's colleagues continually were startled by his ability to propose outrageous theories that provoked intense discussion and new discoveries, and often proved to be right.
He perhaps is best known, though, for an idea that ultimately proved to be wrong, but nonetheless stimulated important research.
Working with astrophysicists Fred Hoyle and Hermann Bondi in the 1940s at Cambridge University, Mr. Gold developed an alternative to the Big Bang theory, proposing that the universe had no beginning or end, but rather expanded throughout time by continually creating new matter.
In the end, attempts to validate his theory led to its downfall and the acceptance of the Big Bang hypothesis. Along the way, though, scientists discovered how different chemical elements are formed in the centers of stars, a cornerstone of modern astrophysics.
Undeterred, Mr. Gold once said, "in choosing a hypothesis, there isn't any virtue in being timid."
Mr. Gold showed no timidity again in a 1968 explanation of why pulsars pulse. Discovered that year, pulsars are objects in deep space that produce regular, repeating bursts of radio noise. Mr. Gold developed a theory that the objects were incredibly dense neutron stars spinning like tops. Like the light from a lighthouse, he said, beams of radiation emitted from the stars' poles sweep in a circle, appearing to pulse on and off when the beam intersects Earth.
At the time, his theory was considered so ridiculous that he was not even allowed to present it at a conference. But observations of a pulsar in the Crab nebula showed that the pulses were slowing, just as he had predicted, and the theory of pulsars as spinning neutron stars went on to universal acceptance.
Time proved Mr. Gold right again when he challenged the dogma on how the human ear distinguishes tones, one of his largest leaps across scientific disciplines. In the 1970s, after 30 years of dismissing him as a meddling outsider, audiologists discovered tiny resonating "hair cells" in the ear that proved his idea was correct.
"I enjoy shaking the scientific community by the neck," he once said.
True to the name "fossil fuels," most geologists view oil and natural gas as fossils: the bodies of dead organisms, converted under heat and pressure into hydrocarbon fuels. They assert that the biological material they invariably find mixed in with the hydrocarbons confirms this view.
But Mr. Gold wasn't convinced. He proposed that the hydrocarbons were not biological, but rather were formed 4.5 billion years ago as Earth congealed and now percolate up through the crust. This vision implies that fossil fuels are basically unlimited, if one drills deep enough, but also offers a striking view on the beginnings of life on Earth as a way to explain the biological material in fossil fuels.
The material, he asserted, comes from strange single-celled organisms called archaea that thrive deep below the Earth's surface by feeding on the hydrocarbons.
Mr. Gold began subverting the dominant paradigm as a graduate student at the famed Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University in England. Born in Vienna, Austria, he fled Hitler to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he received both his bachelor's and master's degrees. World War II prevented him from continuing on to his doctorate; instead, he developed new radar systems for the British Admiralty.
After the war, Harvard hired Mr. Gold as a professor of astronomy, despite his lack of a doctorate, and he later moved to Cornell. He did not receive his degree from Cambridge until 1969, 11 years after he left England.
At Cornell, Mr. Gold served as director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, chairman of the astronomy department, assistant vice president for research, and finally as the John L. Wetherill professor of astronomy.
"Gold epitomized Cornell's openness to offbeat geniuses," science biographer Keay Davidson wrote. On campus, he was notoriously energetic, both in his scientific studies, and athletically, often surprising younger colleagues by leaping up stairs two at a time, and engaging in water-skiing, mountain climbing and even tightrope walking.
He is survived by his wife, Carvel; their daughter, Lauren; and three daughters and six grandchildren from his marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg.
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