The Seattle Times

4 of 10
JANA MALINEK / SPECIAL TO THE SEATTLE TIMES
Advertising

Thursday, December 5, 2013

Rudolph’s last stand: Where have all the reindeer gone?

Woodland caribou survival depends largely on arboreal lichens like these in the Selkirk Mountains. These tree-dwellers need pure air and years of growth to provide caribou with enough nutrition for winter survival. Unfortunately, that also means caribou survival is tied to old-growth forests — and a reliable snowpack so they can reach higher branches.